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Developments is DAI’s newsletter. News and feature articles, opinion pieces, and interviews highlight DAI projects and offer insight into global development issues of the day.

Full Article Archive:


Cold Storage Expansion Drives Market Development in Uzbekistan

Summer 2017

We were amazed to see a packed audience in 2010 when our team from the Global Cold Chain Alliance (GCCA) traveled to Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Our Uzbek trainees came from many backgrounds—teachers, builders, businessmen—eager to learn about this vital link in the agricultural value chain. Most did not have experience in the cold chain, let alone a refrigeration facility to manage, yet they soon formed the foundation for the country’s remarkable cold chain development.

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Using Development Assistance to Catalyze Sound Investments in Emerging and Developing Markets

Summer 2017

Investment opportunities in manufacturing, agriculture, and health are as abundant globally as the capital to fund them, but investors in these and other sectors are rightly cautious about entering new countries and taking risks on small and growing businesses and productive infrastructure. Fortunately, there are many examples in these teeming markets of how capital supported by local development expertise and entrepreneurial energy has generated both financial returns and development results.

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PolSEFF’s Legacy: Lower Energy Bills for Businesses Across Poland; a Financing Model to Scale and Replicate

Summer 2017

While Poland’s private sector grew steadily in the post-Soviet era, its reliance on old energy equipment and poorly insulated facilities contributed to the country becoming one of the highest energy consumers in Europe. In 2010, when the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) launched the Polish Sustainable Energy Financing Facility (PolSEFF), few business owners had invested in energy efficiency measures compared with the European Union average, and Polish lending institutions were not prepared to finance these types of upgrades. As a result, business owners continued to pay unnecessarily high energy bills and emit unnecessarily high amounts of carbon.

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Philippines Increases Tax Collections by $1.1 Billion Year Over Year—Without Raising Rates

Summer 2017

What would you do with an extra $1.1 billion? That amount represents the additional taxes collected by the Philippines government during the first quarter of 2017 versus the same period in 2016. This 12.2 percent increase—during the country’s tax-collecting season—followed the rapid adoption by taxpayers of an electronic tax-filing system introduced by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Facilitating Public Investment (FPI) program, implemented by DAI.

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Generation Rising: Young, Educated Afghan Women Enter the Workforce

Summer 2017

It is hard to believe in the wake of the past few decades that 1960s and ’70s Afghanistan was relatively progressive for women, with many women and girls freely attending school, working professionally, and dressing fashionably. Since the 1990s, warlords and, later, the conquering Taliban subjugated females—forbidding girls from going to school and women from working.

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$83 Million Grain Deal Between East African Countries Demonstrates How the Region Can Feed Itself

Summer 2017

If East Africa grows enough food to feed itself, which it generally does, why are so many of its people going hungry? This question lies at the nexus of two of Africa’s key development challenges—food security and trade—where a recent milestone event may signal a massive change in fortunes for one of the most food insecure regions of the world.

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The Whole Spectrum: A Holistic Approach to Climate Resilience

Summer 2017

Climate change is a growing threat to global stability and national security. Decades of fossil fuel combustion and unsustainable land use have contributed to carbon dioxide levels in the planet’s atmosphere that are higher than in the past 4 million years. With so much carbon dioxide trapping heat in the atmosphere, the planet is getting warmer. Last year—2016—was the hottest year on record and seas around the world have already risen an average of nearly 3 inches. We are already experiencing increased impacts from extreme events, such as floods and drought: while it is difficult to attribute any one event to the broader phenomenon of climate change, Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines caused 6,100 deaths, displaced 4 million people, and damaged 1.1 million houses in 2013, with an estimated financial cost exceeding US$7 billion.

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Unlocking Capital: How USAID Pushed the Frontier of Financial Services and Built a Foundation for Economic Growth in Kenya

Spring 2017

In 2010, as part of the U.S. Government’s Feed the Future initiative, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) designed the Kenya Financial Inclusion for Rural Microenterprises (FIRM) project. FIRM aimed to push the frontier of financial services into the agricultural sector where smallholder farmers—the bulk of Kenya’s 45 million people—were mired in poverty.

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Big Gains in Access to Safe Drinking Water: How Four African Countries Did It … and How Others Can, Too

Spring 2017

In 1990, the East African nation of Ethiopia stood among the nations in most dire need of water development. Seventeen years of war had left its government and systems in disarray. Only 11 percent of its more than 48 million people had access to piped or other improved water sources; the rest used unimproved sources such as unprotected wells and carted drums. Predictably, Ethiopia and countries in similar straits suffered through high rates of communicable, pandemic, and vector-borne disease, child mortality, and other challenges tied to water, sanitation, and hygiene.

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Afghan Municipalities Raise More Revenues, Deliver Better Services, Enhance Stability

Spring 2017

The long-running conflicts in Afghanistan have threatened to reduce its municipalities to mere clusters of people rather than organized cities operating for the local good. But this is changing. Many municipalities are now gaining strength, establishing financial systems, increasing revenues, and improving service delivery by virtue of technical assistance funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).

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Six Ways to Mitigate Instability in Central America

Spring 2017

Some people might be surprised to know that most of the migrants trying to cross the U.S. southern border come not from Mexico but from countries to Mexico’s south.

Eighty percent of the unaccompanied child migrants detained at the border in the year ending September 2016—roughly 47,000 out of 59,000—came from Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. Migration from these “Northern Triangle” countries has spiked since 2013, with many migrants forced from their homes because their families are impoverished, their communities overrun by gangs, and their countries’ governments ill-equipped to fix such problems.

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Sexual Harassment Law Passes Afghan Houses

Spring 2017

Harassment in the workplace in Afghanistan is a major deterrent to women’s participation. In the private sector, women regularly suffer verbal and physical abuse, blackmail, and the use of authority to coerce sex. But this treatment extends beyond the private sector.

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Simple Solutions: Nutrition and Garden Training in Afghanistan Improves Food Security for Thousands

Spring 2017

As in many developing countries, mothers and children in rural Afghanistan suffer from chronic undernutrition, often because they lack knowledge. Thousands of families in northern Afghanistan are now enjoying improved nutrition and food security thanks to work by a U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) economic growth program.

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Market Systems Development Boosts Farming, Nutrition in Bangladesh’s Southern Delta

Spring 2017

Bangladesh’s Southern Delta—home to 30 million people—is afflicted by inefficient farming, persistent poverty, and poor nutrition. But a market systems approach applied by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Agricultural Value Chains Program (AVC), a Feed the Future initiative, is beginning to show great promise for the region.

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Establishing a Model at the Local Level for Science-Driven Climate Adaptation

Countries in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)—Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam—are home to rural populations that are chronically poor or vulnerable. Many of these families still produce much of their own food and are acutely sensitive to weather events such as floods, droughts, and extreme storms that cause crop failures and serious hardships. In recent years, rural communities in the LMB have experienced their share of extreme weather.

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National Governments Hold the Key to Sustainable Local Climate Change Adaptation in the Mekong Basin

Over the past few years, farmers in the Lower Mekong Basin have had to change how they win their livelihoods: diversifying crops, reconfiguring livestock husbandry practices, addressing water quality and quantity, even moving their planting schedules. Utilizing local knowledge and experience, these farmers and communities are adapting to the changing climate; they also mark the beginning of a movement.

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Chevron’s Nigerian Initiative Found to Decrease Business Risk, Attract Local Investment, and "Bring Hope"

When Chevron launched the Niger Delta Partnership Initiatives (NDPI) Foundation in 2010, it knew there were no easy solutions to the instability felt by Nigeria’s youth, poor, and unemployed. Ethnic and religious conflicts had long festered and flared, including in the Niger Delta, where Chevron has extensive oil and gas operations. Taking a regional approach while still complementing other Chevron Nigeria social investments such as the Global Memorandum of Understanding (GMOU), the company sought to address the fundamental issues confronting local communities: the struggle for economic opportunity, the sources of the underlying conflict, and the capacity shortfalls constraining the Delta’s development.

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Unveiling a New Methodology for Measuring Market Systems and Their Impact on Local Development

When the Foundation for Partnership Initiatives in the Niger Delta (PIND) was launched with Chevron’s backing in 2010, it also meant that a time would come to assess whether the team was achieving its goals—primarily, to open doors for broad-based economic opportunity in the conflict-affected Delta.

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New Opportunities Emerge to Support Meaningful Democratic Reform in Sri Lanka

By 2014, DAI was winding down the Reintegration and Stabilization in the East and North (RISEN) program in Sri Lanka on behalf of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Office of Transition Initiatives. Over more than four years of operations, the program worked locally with people in civil society and government, implementing grants totaling $14 million to restore communities and support reconciliation between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamil populations following 26 years of destructive war.

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Agriculture Goes Prime Time: Enthralling a TV Audience of Future Farmers

Summer 2016

Each Wednesday night, up to 11 million viewers tune into Makutano Junction, a hit TV series that airs on Citizen Television in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. It is the most-watched locally produced program in Kenya, but Makutano Junction is not just any soap opera. Africa Lead II, a Feed the Future program of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), is helping fund production and craft scripts that deliver a much-needed message: agriculture is cool.

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Domestic Resource Mobilization Takes Root in El Salvador ... and Beyond?

Summer 2016

An encouraging trend in development is gaining speed: more countries want to do more to fund their own development, and donors are on board. At the July 2015 Third International Conference on Financing for Development in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, attended by more than 110 heads of state, ministers, and officials from 38 countries, donors pledged a doubling of assistance by 2020 for programs to increase domestic resource mobilization.

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Zika and the Americas—A Call to Action for Surveillance and Preparedness

More than 30 countries in the Americas have reported Zika virus infections, with up to 4 million people projected to be infected in 2016. The mosquito-borne virus has now also been linked to sexual transmission, causing public health experts to predict that the virus could spread locally in the United States and elsewhere. U.S. agencies are responding quickly, prompted by the Level 1 alert issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s emergency control unit.

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USAID-Backed Fellow Inspires Malaysian Renewable Energy Policy

Summer 2016

When people think of solar energy, they often envision banks of solar panels producing electricity that powers lights and household appliances. While the use of photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into electricity can contribute to reducing carbon emissions, another important and simpler use of the sun’s rays often goes overlooked: the generation of usable heat.

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Clean Water for All by 2030. No, Really.

The audacity of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal No. 6—to ensure clean water and sanitation for all by 2030—is balanced by a few encouraging realities: there are myriad ways to attack the goal collectively, there is real clout behind global water initiatives, and—most promisingly—the world has already achieved notable results in water development. Since 1990, for example, more than 1.9 billion people have gained access to piped drinking water and 2.1 billion to improved sanitation, according to the UN.

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SERVIR Demand Activity: A Key Link in Connecting Space to Village

Summer 2016

Alerting rural villages to floods, detecting remote forest fires, and monitoring greenhouse gas emissions are some of the capabilities of SERVIR Global, a collaboration between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). SERVIR integrates imagery and data from Earth-observing satellites and geospatial technologies to give policy makers around the world critical information on climate-sensitive topics such as natural disasters, agriculture, water, ecosystems, and land use. While the technology from space that SERVIR relies on is impressive, its greatest potential might lie in facilitating human connections down on earth.

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A Good Use of U.S. Taxpayer Money: Helping Countries Mobilize Domestic Resources

Summer 2016

Tax Day—April 18 this year in the United States—is a day that sparks controversy for many constituencies. For tax opponents, it is a reminder of the burdens borne by the taxpayer. For foreign aid skeptics, it is an opportunity to bemoan the sums spent on international development. For aid advocates, it is a moment to point out how tiny those sums are in the big picture of government expenditures.

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When Tax Reform Leads to Increased Funding for Health Services

For people across El Salvador, it can be difficult to find medical treatment. Local health facilities in marginalized and rural areas often run short of basic medicines such as antibiotics. A doctor or nurse—if available—might have difficulty locating supplies and tools such as syringes and stethoscopes. But this scenario is brightening.

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Energizing the Support Network for People with Disabilities in Vietnam

As in most countries, people with disabilities in Vietnam lead disadvantaged lives. Their plight has been exacerbated by the facts that until recently Vietnam was a very poor country without strong government social services, and the wars from the 1940s through the 1970s left many victims, adding substantially to the disability burden. The legacy of what the Vietnamese call the American War includes large numbers of unexploded ordnance and dioxin contamination where Agent Orange was sprayed or spilled that continue to affect lives and relations between the two countries today. There are an estimated 12 million people and families in Vietnam affected by disabilities.

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Positively Mobilizing Urban Communities for WASH

Despite gains elsewhere in the country, urban Indonesia suffers from the lowest rate of access to improved sanitation and the second lowest rate of access to safe water among all ASEAN member nations. Only 32 percent of Indonesia’s urban population has access to piped water and only 73 percent to basic sanitation, which translates into higher rates of waterborne diseases, particularly among the most vulnerable: children and the poor.

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Scaling Up Mobile Health Services to Expectant and New Mothers in Cambodia

Working in Cambodia, the Czech organization People in Need (PIN) had already produced a pilot maternal health product. Its mobile phone-based service—named Baby Care Village—was reaching select mothers and caregivers with messages on how to care for newborns. While the new service proved valuable, surveys indicated its messages were meeting just a fraction of the demand.

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Engaging Both Men and Women to Link Nutrition to Agriculture

Severe food insecurity and a lack of diversified farming systems present serious challenges to Malawi’s government and development community. One great obstacle is misinformation. Many Malawians hold deep misconceptions about food—for example, that eating oranges or other citrus will shrivel a mother’s breasts. This misinformation works against a population whose rates of malnutrition and stunting—while declining in recent years—remain alarmingly high at nearly 50 percent.

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Spurring the Malawi Judiciary to Re-Hear Death Sentence Cases, Free Prisoners Unjustly Held

Summer 2016

In the 2007 case of Kafantayeni and Others v. Attorney General, the Malawi High Court invalidated the mandatory death penalty and ruled that all prisoners given these sentences were entitled to a new sentence hearing. In November 2010, the Malawi Supreme Court of Appeal confirmed this right. But by 2013, none of the affected death-row prisoners—188 men and four women—had received their hearing.

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How Savings Groups Assist the Poor and Support Broader Development Goals

Summer 2016

In November, DAI inclusive economic growth specialists Colleen Green and Kirsten Weeks attended the SG2015 Savings Groups Conference in Lusaka, Zambia, where approximately 350 practitioners from 44 countries shared experiences and opinions. Green and Weeks recently discussed savings groups and how DAI uses them across its programming with John Jepsen, DAI’s Global Practice Lead for financial services.

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DAI’s Newest Collaboration: The Innovation into Action Challenge

Innovation has been a core DAI principle since our founding 45 years ago. The firm’s very name, Development Alternatives, speaks to the company’s fundamental aspiration to provide customers with solutions that push the boundaries of the discipline. At DAI, we define innovation as the combination of products, services, processes, and business models that collectively create a new growth trajectory for the company. For DAI, innovation must yield value.

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Feed the Future Project Builds Freekeh Industry in Lebanon

Quinoa can be hard to pronounce but has won the hearts of health-conscious consumers in international food markets. Supporters hope one day to say the same for the middle-eastern grain, freekeh. This ancient whole grain is made from green wheat that is then roasted. In foodie circles, it is gaining in popularity alongside millet, farro, and [others][1].

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For Thailand’s Civil Society, Capacity Building Now Begins at Home

Summer 2016

Well functioning democracies typically rest on three pillars: the state, the market economy, and civil society. Although nongovernmental organizations have existed in Thailand since the Vietnam War, management in the country’s civil society sector has lagged. During Thailand’s modernization and rapid growth, the state and private sectors have dominated development, with universities limited to preparing Thai people for employment in these sectors. Until recently, there were no university programs dedicated to nonprofit management.

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Discovering Pathways to Economic Growth in Somalia, Discreetly

Winter 2015

Somalis have suffered through a generation of conflict and political instability, with no formal national government since the outbreak of civil war in 1991. An estimated 500,000 Somalis died during the conflict, which left Somalia unable to support its people and an economy in dire straits. Yet following the formation in 2012 of the first federal national government since the war began, signs of progress have begun to emerge. A more settled political landscape and improving security—thanks to continuing action against Al-Shabaab—have seen Somalia graduate from a failed to a fragile state.

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The Future of Mobile Money: Traditional Banks, B2B, and the User’s Perspective

Winter 2015

Brigit Helms, who leads the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Support Program for Economic and Enterprise Development in Mozambique, is a thought leader on extending financial services to poor households and small businesses in developing countries. Helms recently spoke with John Jepsen, DAI’s Global Practice Leader for Financial Services, about trends and opportunities in digital financial services.

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In Vietnam, Creating Opportunities for Children with Disabilities

Winter 2015

Even though their right to an education is mandated by law, thousands of school-age children in Vietnam stay at home or sit uninvolved in classrooms because they have disabilities. Helping these children has been a priority of the U.S. Agency for International Development’s disability program in Vietnam, including its Persons with Disabilities Support Program (PDSP), launched in 2012 and led by DAI.

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Nurturing a Culture of Law and Justice in the DRC

Winter 2015

Decades of war and political unrest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) left a void of law and justice for Congolese citizens. Too often, security and police forces are part of the problem rather than the solution, operating in a culture of impunity and self-enrichment enabled by the absence of judicial and public oversight. Citizens in the DRC have limited understanding of the role of the police as public servants, or of how police and citizens should interact in a democracy.

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Growing a Global Network of Microfinance Practitioners

Fall 2015

The European Commission (EC) is one of the world’s leading exponents of access-to-finance programming, known particularly for initiatives such as mentoring local banks and developing loan programmes for small businesses and green energy investment. Equally noteworthy is an EC programme dedicated to promoting microfinance in developing countries, a programme that recently closed after vitalizing a global network of local microfinance practitioners who in turn reached some 3.5 million people.

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Building Community Climate Stories and Adaptation Plans from the Ground Up

Fall 2015

A complex web of ecosystems, the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) is acutely sensitive to climate change. More than 60 million people depend on this vast interconnected system to support their livelihoods. While there is an urgent need for these communities to begin adapting to rising temperatures, heavier precipitation, and more frequent flooding, residents of the Basin—mostly people connected to rice, livestock, and fish farming—do not have the knowledge, tools, or resources to better prepare themselves for the future climate.

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Training Videographers for Development in Cambodia

Fall 2015

When Australian-Cambodian videographer Bunhom Chhorn returned to his native Cambodia in the early 2000s, he found the country nearly stripped of basic video expertise. There were no facilities, instruction, or equipment available to most people. Cambodian media overall had been greatly diminished by years of poverty and instability.

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Measuring the Effectiveness of Government in Thailand’s Provinces

Fall 2015

Thailand enjoyed strong economic gains through the 1980s and 1990s, but political crises and civil unrest that have escalated since 2005 have damaged the country domestically. The prolonged constitutional crisis—culminating in the May 2014 military coup d’etat—has punished Thailand’s 67 million citizens by diminishing governance and public services. Civic pride, engagement, and trust in government are at historic lows, with ordinary people taking to the streets in protest and riot.

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Interview with Joel Carter, CEO of Afghanistan’s Agricultural Development Fund

Summer 2015

For generations, Afghanistan’s commercial farmers and agribusinesses had no way to borrow money to invest in their businesses. In 2010, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in partnership with the Afghanistan Ministry for Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock (MAIL), established the Agricultural Development Fund (ADF). USAID’s initial fund contribution of $100 million would be complemented by a technical assistance contract—the Agricultural Credit Enhancement Program—awarded to DAI.

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Uniting Tajikistan’s Farmers to Fix Broken Irrigation Systems

Summer 2015

Tajikistan’s rugged alpine mountain ranges hold many glaciers; these feed hundreds of streams that flow down to the fertile river valleys, where many people work on farms. Despite this pretty picture, Tajikistan is severely food challenged. The poorest country in Central Asia, Tajikistan imports more than half its food. Many of its most vulnerable families go all day without eating.

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In Sierra Leone: Enhancing Traditional Law and Justice Services

Summer 2015

Despite significant improvements in the delivery of statutory justice services, most rural people in Sierra Leone lack the time, money, or literacy needed to access formal justice structures such as police, courts, or legal services. Instead, they rely on traditional mechanisms such as the Chiefdom structure, which are perceived as quicker, less expensive (in time and money), and more accessible.

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The Birth of a New Credit Culture in Afghanistan

Summer 2015

Fifty-four months. That’s how long it took to conceive, launch, and hand over the Agricultural Development Fund (ADF) in Afghanistan. Through the Agricultural Credit Enhancement (ACE) Program, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) established a standalone financial institution to administer the ADF, with a clearly defined governance structure and guided by rigorous policies and procedures.

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Building Trust while Rebuilding Somalia

Summer 2015

Somalia has one of the most insecure, complicated, and harsh operating environments in the world. Much of the country is in ruins, with conflict between rival clans, continued attacks by Al Shabaab, and violent power struggles amplifying humanitarian disasters such as refugee crises, famine, and poverty. In the past two decades, millions of dollars in international aid directed to Somalia has had mixed results, with many Somalis believing that well intentioned assistance has exacerbated conflict and increased corruption.

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Serving the Missing Middle

Not long ago, Aynalem Gebryes had nowhere to turn to borrow money, despite having a steady income from fattening cattle, producing milk, growing potatoes, and selling directly to local hotels and restaurants.

This changed in January 2014, when the 56-year-old widowed mother of three from Addis Ababa became the first woman to receive a loan through the Women’s Entrepreneurship Development Programme (WEDP). Gebryes used her $7,500 loan to add two cows to her operation and build a government-backed biogas unit, from which she plans to sell any fuel she doesn’t use herself.

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Fiscal Reform and the Struggle for Stability in Jordan

Summer 2015

Much ink has been spilt by academics, analysts, diplomats, and the military regarding the causes of instability. But a broad consensus holds that environments with scant economic opportunities are fertile grounds for recruiting alienated and aggrieved young people to the cause of violent extremism. Taking that as a premise, it makes sense to pursue programming that bolsters economic resilience as part of an integrated strategy to counter extremism. In Jordan, we have an example where macroeconomic assistance—in particular, fiscal reform—has played an important role in sustaining the stability of a country at the heart of one of the world’s most volatile regions.

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Working Together? We’re Working On It

Summer 2015

For DAI, one of the great advantages of implementing an extensive and diverse group of projects is the opportunity it affords us to learn and collaborate across a multiclient portfolio—to bring insights from U.K Department for International Development (DFID) programming into our U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work, for example, and vice versa; or to coordinate mutually beneficial activities that cross project and client lines.

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Women in Development: An Inside View

In international development, one thing that everyone seems to agree on is that increasing women’s engagement in society has diverse and wide-reaching development benefits. Many people are familiar with some version of the adage: “If you educate a boy, you train a man. If you educate a girl, you train a village.” Expanding opportunities for women’s education, access to health services, economic participation, and leadership can have ripple effects that spur economic growth, promote political stability and peace, and improve public health.

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Women in Development: Intissar Hemim

Editor’s Note: This interview is part of a series on Women in Development highlighting the role women play in DAI’s work around the globe. The Q&A was conducted by DAI Communications Specialist Sara Lehman.

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Women in Development: Endah Agustiana

Editor’s Note: This interview is part of a series on Women in Development highlighting the role women play in DAI’s work around the globe. The Q&A was conducted by DAI Communications Specialist Sara Lehman.

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Women in Development: Ruba Al’Zubi

Editor’s Note: This interview is part of a series on Women in Development highlighting the role women play in DAI’s work around the globe. The Q&A was conducted by DAI Communications Specialist Sara Lehman.

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Women in Development: Jessica Heinzelman

Editor’s Note: This interview is part of a series on Women in Development highlighting the role women play in DAI’s work around the globe. The Q&A was conducted by DAI Communications Specialist Sara Lehman.

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Women in Development: Alia Afshar-Gandhi

Editor’s Note: This interview is part of a series on Women in Development highlighting the role women play in DAI’s work around the globe. The Q&A was conducted by DAI Communications Specialist Sara Lehman.

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How Banks Can Help Businesses Reduce Their Energy Costs

Spring 2015

Energy consumption can account for up to half the cost of doing business for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These businesses of 250 or fewer employees make up 95 percent of enterprises across the world; they also account for approximately 60 percent of all private sector employment. Globally, there is great potential to reduce their energy costs and carbon emissions.

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Better Data Transfer Reinforces Kenya’s Hunger Safety Net, Enables Emergency Payments

Spring 2015

The traditional pastoralists of northern Kenya are increasingly challenged by the changing climate.

Most of the land they inhabit is classified arid or semi-arid and prone to droughts which, in recent years, have become almost annual. Seventy-four percent of the people—much higher than the national average—live below the national poverty line, with poverty rates highest in the most arid counties of Wajir, Mandera, Marsabit, and Turkana. The struggles for those in Wajir and Mandera are compounded by the effects of insecurity from neighboring Somalia.

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Sustaining the Facebook Revolution

Spring 2015

The nexus of social media, Internet access, and smartphone technology has spawned a revolution in political activism. Ordinary people using new technology and digital media platforms—people whose voices would otherwise be drowned out by dominant political forces—are now contributing to or joining political debates. And their price for admission is almost zero.

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Monitoring Our Assumptions

Spring 2015

For many of the world’s poor, usable land is in short supply. In Africa, for example, more than 90 percent of rural land is undocumented and vulnerable to land-grabbing and expropriation. This leaves smallholder farmers and pastoralists—people trying to eke out an existence—vulnerable, especially in countries where land governance is weak.

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The Phantom Team Leader

Spring 2015

Most industry observers believe the leaders of increasingly complex development projects must combine subject matter expertise with strong executive skills—a rare combination. Do the leaders we are searching for exist?

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Stepping Up to the Innovation Challenge

Innovation

On the morning of October 29, a panel of distinguished judges gathered in Bethesda, Maryland, to hear the final pitches from five DAI projects competing for the title of DAI “Innovation of the Year.”

They heard powerful, impassioned cases made by project staff working to improve education in Pakistan, facilitate land titling in Ethiopia, recognize the land rights of indigenous people in Honduras, and mitigate the effects of climate change in the Pacific Islands.

The proceedings were broadcast live to DAI staff by videoconference, and at a lunch-time celebration the Transforming Education in Pakistan project’s online clearinghouse for education data was named the winner.

The announcement marked the culmination of a five-month Innovation Challenge that is the focal point for this issue of Developments.

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DAI’s 2014 Innovation Challenge: Lessons and Legacy

Innovation

International development donors are increasingly asking their partners for more than just “good development.” Inspired in part by the example of the information and communications technology sector, they want new thinking and better approaches to address global poverty, poor governance, climate change, environmental degradation, and inadequate health care. They want solutions that are transformative (vs. incremental), scalable, more efficient, and cost-effective. They want, in a word, innovation.

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Is Everyone Really Innovating?

Innovation

Innovation seems to be ubiquitous—or, at least, talk about innovation. A 2012 Wall Street Journal review of reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission shows companies used some form of the word “innovation” 33,528 times in 2011, a 64 percent increase from five years before. At the same time, one doesn’t have to look hard to find growing cynicism regarding over use of the concept.

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Innovation’s Missing Link

Innovation

In the critically acclaimed film, The Spanish Prisoner, Steve Martin plays a confidence man trying to swindle an unsuspecting engineer out of “the process,” a super-secret industrial formula that generates boatloads of cash. Martin and his co-conspirators are sent away in handcuffs with the process safe and sound as the credits roll. What remains mysteriously unresolved is how the process works and what makes it so lucrative.

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Can the Development Set Reinvent Itself?

Innovation

Innovation is “in.” In 2014, the U.S. Agency for International Development and U.K. Department for International Development have both launched sizable initiatives: the U.S. Global Development Lab and the Global Innovation Fund, respectively. Innovation hubs, incubators, and accelerators are popping up like mushrooms. Partnerships—especially with the private sector—are widely seen as essential to the innovation of solutions with scale.

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Disruption for Good

Innovation

Despite the advances in human development in the 20th century, humanitarian aid remains as relevant as ever. While our ability to respond to disaster has improved, factors such as climate change and the burgeoning global population mean that the number and severity of disasters have also increased. Could “big data” help humanitarian relief actors keep up with this escalating challenge?

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Humanitarians in the Sky

Innovation

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) capture images faster, cheaper, and at a far higher resolution than satellite imagery. And as John DeRiggi speculates in “Drones for Development?” these attributes will likely lead to a host of applications in development work. In the humanitarian field that future is already upon us—so we need to take a rights-based approach to advance the discussion, improve coordination of UAV flights, and to promote regulation that will ensure safety while supporting innovation.

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Drones for Development?

Innovation

Recent advances in drone technology have come in tandem with advances in artificial intelligence. These converging technologies will give rise to fully autonomous drones that could play an important role in a host of applications, from commercial delivery systems to municipal governance–and quite possibly in international development activities.

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An Innovation in Governance

Innovation

Pro Mujer is a nonprofit organisation serving communities in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. It delivers an integrated package of financial services, business, and empowerment training through its communal banks, which are groups of 20-30 women who receive small business loans through Pro Mujer.

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Failing Fast

Innovation

“Fail fast” is a mantra in Silicon Valley. While the development sector is starting to accept more failure—through “Fail Fairs” and reports centred around learning from failure—it is still far from achieving the speed of failure practiced in, for instance, the tech sector. Most development programmes don’t know if their program is failing months or even years after launch, whereas tech ideas can recognise failure within days. Can the development sector catch up?

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Big Data for Big Impact

Innovation

Food-related conversations on Twitter have shown strong correlations with food price inflation. Patterns of mobile phone usage are being analysed to predict the magnitude of a disease outbreak. When airtime top-off amounts shrink in a certain region, it tends to indicate a loss of income in that population.

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Made in Africa

Innovation

As the current Ebola outbreak vividly illustrates, the ability of developing countries to detect and contain outbreaks of infectious disease is a matter of concern to us all. That ability depends upon capacities across a wide variety of areas. Among these is the capacity of laboratories to quickly and accurately perform modern diagnostic tests — and that requires equipment.

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DIY Development

Innovation

Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, many Japanese people were concerned about radioactive contamination in their environment. Radiation data from the government and the private sector were out of date and widely viewed with skepticism. Were citizens safe in their homes, schools, and offices? Was the clean up effort effective?

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Timorese Farmers Take Advantage of Demand for High-Value Produce

Summer 2014

In 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) invested in a hydroponic greenhouse facility that enabled 20 Timorese farmers to grow high-value vegetables such as capsicum and tomatoes. These high-quality products for local supermarkets replaced vegetables that previously had to be imported, jumpstarting production in Timor-Leste’s Aileu District and increasing cash income for its farmers. Since then, the Developing Agricultural Communities, or Dezenvolve Agricultura Comunitária (DAC, 2010–2015) project and its predecessor Dezenvolve Setor Privadu (2006–2010) have engaged more than 400 farmers in greenhouse and outdoor vegetable production and helped build a stronger fresh produce value chain.

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Supporting the Transition to Peace in Sri Lanka

Summer 2014

When armed conflict in eastern Sri Lanka ended in 2007, the Government of Sri Lanka was afforded an opportunity to begin repairing the damage. Two years later when the government captured the last-remaining stronghold of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in the north, the 26-year civil war finally ended, promising better days ahead and the hope for lasting peace. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) launched the Reintegration and Stabilization in the East (RISE) project to prepare communities in the most conflict-affected areas in the east for the changes peace would bring, including the eventual reintegration of former combatants back into their villages.

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Supporting Active Citizenship Across Pakistan

Summer 2014

Danish Bibi was to be married off illiterate and homebound to a husband not of her choosing. Usman Ghani saw neighborhood children routinely die for lack of health services. Brothers Ishaq and Saleem feuded for years over the same plot of land.

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DAI Solutions: Thinking Outside the Organizational Box

Summer 2014

In January 2013, DAI launched a new corporate structure designed to optimize the firm’s deployment of technical and operational expertise across the world. The restructured organization includes a new Solutions team, led by Jim Packard Winkler and staffed by 40 of the firm’s leading technical specialists. A former Chief of Party for U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) projects based in Bangkok, Hanoi, Jerusalem, and Zagreb, Jim was tapped to lead Solutions following five years at the helm of the USAID/Vietnam Competitiveness Initiative. Developments asked Jim to discuss the thinking behind Solutions and the lessons learned in its first year or so of work.

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Innovative Fund Enables Philippine Water Utilities to Invest, Deliver Safe Water to New Customers

Summer 2014

More than a decade ago, the Philippine Government committed to achieving Millennium Development Goals for water supply by expanding access to safe water to 16 million Filipinos—about one-fifth of the country’s population. This expansion would require an annual investment of PhP6-7 billion (US$150-$175 million); however, public sector financing remained stuck at PhP3-4 billion per year with no increase in sight. The only way to achieve the goal would be to mobilize private sector financing and investment. But how?

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Calculating the Fiscal Cost to Jordan of the Syrian Refugee Crisis

Summer 2014

Since 2011, the Syrian conflict has killed more than 100,000 people and destroyed countless homes and businesses, forcing Syrians by the thousands to seek refuge in the region. Jordan generously opened its borders to these refugees, who settled in camps established by the United Nations and in northern cities such as Irbid, Ramtha, and Mafraq, resulting in a rapid, nearly 10 percent increase in the population.

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Fertilizing Method Delivers Results for Liberian Rice Farmers

Summer 2014

When the 300 farmers at the Fuamah District Multipurpose Cooperative reviewed results from the rice farm’s trials using a new fertilization method, the farmers sang and danced in celebration. Plots using this method—where briquettes of fertilizer are buried in the ground next to rice seedlings—returned 17 percent higher rice yields than simply throwing fertilizer granules onto the field and 30 percent higher yields than sites using no fertilizer at all.

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Going Social on Avian Influenza

Summer 2014

In March 2013, mobile phone subscriptions in Indonesia—a country of approximately 245 million people—topped 285 million. That’s a penetration rate of 117 percent—higher than in China, India, or even Japan. As the cost of phones and service plans dropped, social networks and community media grew enormously, fueled by texting and phone-enabled video.

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The Partnership Fund

Winter 2013

Prior to the fall of Siad Barre’s dictatorship in Somalia, all banks were owned by the state. When Somaliland declared independence from Somalia in 1991, the nascent government did not prioritize the establishment of a banking sector or regulatory environment to develop financial services. Today, Somaliland remains one of the few places in the world with no established commercial banking sector—resulting in a lack of access to capital that constrains the private sector.

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Mining for Answers: Mozambique Weighs Options for a Practical, Profitable Local Content Policy

Winter 2013

Mozambique finds itself at a critical juncture in its economic development. New gas deposits found offshore could bring the country significant revenue through natural gas extraction and export. This discovery will add to the ongoing heavy investments from abroad aimed at extracting and exporting Mozambique’s coal and other precious metals.

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After Typhoon Haiyan: How Do We Build Back Better?

Winter 2013

On November 7, typhoon Haiyan tore through the central Philippines. While rescue and relief personnel have worked valiantly to meet the most urgent needs of the estimated 4.3 million people displaced, full recovery will take years and test the substance of the Philippines national and local governments and the international development community. The estimated impacts of this storm are huge, particularly in Leyte Province:

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Evidence Kits Turning the Tide on Sexual Violence

Summer 2013

The rape kit–or forensic evidence collection kit, to use its sanitized title–is something people in the West might take for granted. Not so in Sri Lanka where, until the advent of the sexual assault forensic examination (SAFE) program, there were no readily available rape kits. Instead, perpetrators of sexual violence acted with impunity.

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To Unlock Job Growth in Egypt, Fix the “Micro-BEE”

Summer 2013

Political crisis or no, Egypt’s government cannot afford to keep ignoring the issues that sparked two popular revolts in as many years. Issue number one for most Egyptians, especially young Egyptians, is employment. To meet the need for jobs, policy makers must do more to improve Egypt’s business enabling environment (BEE), not only at the national level, but also in the local administration trenches.

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Bottom-Up Decentralization: New Local Autonomy Kickstarts Community Governing in the DRC

Summer 2013

When the new constitution for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was written, its main aim was to resolve the conflicts between warring factions that had brought the country to its knees. In the peace talks of 2002 and 2003, convened to assuage the demands of multiple interest and ethnic groups, it was agreed that the DRC would adopt something approaching a federal model. Each province would have its own government, elected assembly, revenue-raising powers, and a governor appointed by the provincial assembly. The existing 11 provinces were to be subdivided to make 26. These agreements were all incorporated in the final constitution of 2006.

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Ensuring that Forest Communities Own REDD+ Projects — Not the Other Way Around

Summer 2013

Forests and climate change have never been more closely entwined in global climate policy discussions, and for good reason: the more forest, the less climate disruption. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation + Conservation (REDD+) initiatives aim to reward communities in and around forests for not converting forests to other land uses, and millions of dollars have been invested to this end. Done well, REDD+ projects can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the clearing or burning of forests, promote development in communities around forests, strengthen land tenure, conserve carbon-storing forests, and safeguard biodiversity. Done poorly, these projects can increase emissions through meaningless offsets, boost deforestation in adjacent areas, and displace indigenous people.

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Three Things That Really Mattered to Developing the Youth Workforce in Serbia’s Down Economy

Summer 2013

Workforce development was a relatively late addition to the $25 million Preparedness, Planning and Economic Security (PPES) project implemented by DAI from 2006 to early 2013. Added to the project by the client, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in mid-2008, the activities eventually became known as the “Youth Support” sub-component and addressed one of the most common issues raised by many small and medium sized enterprises—a dearth of qualified talent in Serbia. When we asked these firms what were some of the key barriers to growth one of the most common answers was: “I can’t find people with the skills I need for my business.”

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Foreseeing a “Grave Crisis,” Will India 
Embrace Greater Water-Use Efficiency?

Summer 2013

Long before any popular environmental movement existed, Mahatma Ghandhi said, “The earth, the air, the land, and the water are not an inheritance from our forefathers but on loan from our children.” Today, India faces many challenges, few of them more fundamental to long-term development than fresh water availability. The centrality of water to human health, agriculture, manufacturing, and ecosystems makes it imperative that India’s decision makers improve the stewardship of water resources.

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Competitiveness-Driven Growth: CIBER Process Breaks Barriers for Moldovan Entrepreneurs

Summer 2013

Moldova used to be the garden of the Soviet Union. It shipped wine, cereals, fruit, and vegetables to the other Soviet Republics. The collapse of the Soviet Union also meant the near-collapse of its agricultural sector, in particular the high-value horticultural segment. The country is now engaged in an intensive effort to reclaim its position as a strong competitor in agricultural exports, both in the traditional markets to the east but also to the European Union. However, Moldovan entrepreneurs and policy makers face hurdles in their quest.

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Financial Inclusion: A Wealth of Perspectives

Financial Inclusion

The Financial Inclusion Series—convened by DAI and originally published on the Guardian Development Professionals Network—has explored various themes in the “financial inclusion” agenda, from mobile money and poor people’s financial capabilities to innovative supply models and agricultural finance, among others. The range of subject matter and diversity of authors testify to the breadth of the field and the need to pull from different disciplines and perspectives if we are to meet the challenge of financial inclusion.

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Microinsurance: Does it Pay Off for the Poor?

Financial Inclusion

Microinsurance, much like microcredit, seeks to bring financial products and services typically reserved for middle and upper classes to the poor. Its particular promise is to offer low-income consumers protection from financial shocks more effectively than existing coping mechanisms such as credit, savings, pooling of community resources, public sector support, or asset sales.

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Savings Groups and Financial Inclusion

Financial Inclusion

In villages across Africa, Asia, and Latin America, millions of people are meeting regularly in groups of 10 to 30 people to save and borrow small amounts of money, and provide each other with the moral support needed to meet each member’s individual financial goals.

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How to Unlock the Potential of Mobile Money

Financial Inclusion

It’s hard to imagine a more explosive, transformative, and empowering trend than the growth of the mobile phone sector in Africa. In 1998 there were fewer than 4 million phones on the continent; today there are around 800 million—a whopping 80 percent penetration. Compare this to the meager 24 percent of African adults with bank accounts. Experts expect there will be around 1.1 billion mobile phone subscribers by 2017.

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The Service Provider Spectrum: From Microfinance to Financial Inclusion

Financial Inclusion

The microfinance industry has come under withering attack in recent years, pilloried among other things for its high interest rates and its coverage, which is often estimated to reach less than 10 percent of the population. But practitioners, the media, and the public should understand that microfinance is a broad term for a highly differentiated financial sector that is not without its successes. Each type of provider—from banks to savings groups—plays a particular role in providing the continuum of services typically needed to promote “financial inclusion” in underserved areas.

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Financial Education: Time for a Re-Think?

Financial Inclusion

Financial education is often touted as being essential for low-income people. But traditional financial education in both poor and rich contexts too often takes a didactic, classroom-based approach to conveying analytical financial concepts such as budgeting, saving, managing debt, and calculating interest rates. We need to re-think the process of financial education to merge it with product marketing, thereby making it more relevant for customers and more cost-effective for financial institutions.

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Does Microfinance Work?

Financial Inclusion

Does microfinance work? This question has been intensively researched and hotly debated in the development community over the past few years. The answer depends on what you mean by the words ‘microfinance’ and ‘works.’ I’ll explain more, but in a nutshell, if your answer is probably not, you’re likely using a narrow definition of microfinance and a specific notion of what’s meant by ‘works.’ Getting to yes involves a broader definition of microfinance and a more holistic interpretation of what constitutes success, and you need to draw on several strands of research.

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Beyond Financial Inclusion

Financial Inclusion

The term ‘financial inclusion’ has rapidly entered the mainstream policy discourse in the past seven years. Outside of its natural home in the development community and the financial sector, it now features regularly even in tightly worded G20 Summit communiques.

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Benefits of Bringing Mobile Banking to the Unbanked

Financial Inclusion

There is no doubting the growth in popularity of mobile banking. According to Juniper Research, the market for mobile payments is expected to reach more than $600 billon (£393 billion) globally this year–double the figure of February 2011. And many development organisations are riding that telecom wave to reach people who don’t have access to financial institutions.

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Are the Pacific Islands Ripe for Mobile Money?

Financial Inclusion

Characterised by a young, poor, and isolated population with a strong need for basic financial services and fast-growing usage of mobile phones, the Pacific island countries-14 islands spread over 30 million square kilometres-seemed to be a perfect place to develop mobile financial services when the Pacific Financial Inclusion programme (PFIP) started in 2008. Successive assessments found that:

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Agricultural Credit: Delivering the Development Promise in Afghanistan

Financial Inclusion

Economic growth is a necessary condition for long-term stability, especially in conflict-affected environments. In Afghanistan, where more than half of the gross domestic product comes from agriculture and 75 percent of the population lives in rural areas, the growth of the agriculture sector is critical to economic prosperity and social stability.

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A New Financial Model: Putting the Individual at the Centre

Financial Inclusion

Ten years ago, a low-income Filipina woman described her life to me as “one long risk.” Today, I suspect her life is little different. For all the successes of the microcredit experiment, we have yet to take full account of the individual experience at the center of a life lived in poverty—a life where medical crises, theft, crop losses, or any one of innumerable random shocks can readily erode the hard-won gains of saving, building assets, and participation in the financial system.

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A Cash-Lite World: Safe, Cheap, and Convenient Payments for All

Financial Inclusion

In the past two decades, the world’s information grid has expanded massively. Digital signals are all around us. In developed markets, many of these digital exchanges involve electronic payments, but most people in developing countries are still stuck moving paper. Financial transactions lie at the heart of doing commerce, selling goods and services, managing a business, and taking care of one’s family. Making these transactions safer, cheaper, and more convenient should be on the development agenda of every developing country. Yet building a digital payments fabric linking all citizens and businesses in a country is rarely a development priority, in part because the benefits are intangible and diverse.

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Unleashing Cambodian Technical Knowledge

Spring 2013

One of DAI’s most wide-reaching economic growth projects marked its close at the end of 2012 with a remarkable tally of results that speak to the success of an approach based on unleashing the technical knowhow and market linkages already latent in the Cambodian economy.

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Using Hard Data to Inform HIV/AIDS Interventions for Economic Strengthening

Spring 2013

In Tanzania, the health and development challenges are chronic and widespread. The country has been hit hard by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and 15 million people (one third of the population) live below the poverty line, making them particularly vulnerable. While there are no simple solutions to Tanzania’s problems, a household survey implemented by DAI promises to shed new light on interventions to assist these HIV-vulnerable populations.

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Great Expectations

Spring 2013

In recent years, DAI has made a conscious recommitment to serve the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID). As a result, after a lot of hard work and significant investment, we are beginning to establish ourselves as one of the department’s leading implementing partners. We currently manage 10 major projects on DFID’s behalf, including education initiatives, governance projects covering the spectrum of work from voice and accountability to security sector and justice reform, and several economic growth assignments in Africa.

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Youth Music and Popular Voice in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Summer 2012

In many emerging democracies, youth are absent from the political stage and civil society. Last year’s “Arab Spring” proved a promising exception, demonstrating the power of youth to galvanize popular demand and help redefine their political landscape. Sub-Saharan populations, many being immediate neighbors of Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt, followed these dramatic events with fascination and some envy.

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Thousands Worldwide Find Environmental Solutions at FRAMEWeb

Summer 2012

Biogas projects in Africa have a worthy goal—to cheaply convert waste into fuel—but a discouraging record of failure. Reliable biogas operations require specific conditions and careful maintenance. So when Alvaro Gutierrez from Colombia set out to launch a biogas program in Kenya, he reached out for advice and found it, for free, from colleagues all over the world.

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The Case for Supplier Development

Summer 2012

Here in South Africa, the recently approved merger between Walmart and local retailer Massmart has made supplier development a hot topic. Opponents of the merger argue that it will hurt small suppliers by denying them access to the combined company’s supply chain. But the sobering truth is that even before the merger, small companies—particularly black companies—had little chance of penetrating the supply chains of most large South African corporates. International consolidation is a red herring; the more pressing problem is the structural exclusion of nearly 6 million small businesses in the local market.

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In Arid Jordan, IDARA Motivated Citizens, Government to Conserve Precious Water

Summer 2012

Five years ago, the Kingdom of Jordan took a critically important step to conserve its scarce water resources by approving a Water Demand Management (WDM) Policy. While many middle-income and advanced economies have overemphasized supply-side solutions—a costly, myopic, and ultimately inadequate response–water-starved Jordan is beginning to see the benefits of a more balanced strategy.

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Herat Economic Corridor Could Catalyze Growth in Western Afghanistan

Summer 2012

Doing business in Afghanistan is tough. The last 30 years of conflict aside, private-sector growth is obstructed by perpetual mistrust, poor transportation and energy infrastructure, a lack of market information, and a business disabling environment. Infrastructure has been destroyed, investment discouraged, and industrial capacity depleted. Many professionals have left the country, while labor forces have been displaced or are untrained.

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Helping a South African Mining Giant Invest for Results in its Local Communities

Summer 2012

The Sishen Iron Ore Company Community Development Trust faced a fabulous opportunity—and a daunting challenge. A beneficiary of mining giant Anglo American’s Kumba Iron Ore Company, the trust recently came into a sooner-than-expected windfall of dividend income. This annuity could continue for 20 years or more, depending on the life of the company assets, efficient operation of the mine, and global demand for iron ore.

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DAI Security Chief Discusses Importance of Local Security and Training

Summer 2012

Army Special Forces Colonel (Retired) Barry Shapiro joined DAI in 2009 after a distinguished military career specializing in training and liaising with the security forces of Central Asian and Southeast Asian countries. He has extensive experience training local police, special, and military forces in countries such as Afghanistan, Cambodia, Pakistan, and Thailand.

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Project Improves Business Environment in Morocco in Midst of Political Upheaval

In just three and a half years, the [Morocco Economic Competitiveness (MEC)][1] program accomplished an ambitious scope of work: reducing barriers to trade and investment in two rural regions at a time when economic turmoil—particularly in Europe—and political change across the Middle East and North Africa had a profound impact on Morocco.

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